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This will generate a random payment ID, and give you the address that includes your own account and that payment ID. If you want to select a particular payment ID, you can do that too. Use:
integrated_address 82d79055f3b27f56
Payments made to an integrated address generated from your account will go to your account, with that payment ID attached, so you can tell payments apart.
Using subaddresses
It's suggested to use subaddresses (starting with `8`) instead of your main address (starting with `4`) to receive funds. Run:
address new [<label text with white spaces allowed>]
This will generate a subaddress and its optional label, which addess you can share to receive payment on the account it's linked to. For example,
address new github_donations
will generate a subaddress and its label 'github_donations'.
To view all generated addresses, run:
address all
Proving to a third party you paid someone
If you pay a merchant, and the merchant claims to not have received the funds, you may need to prove to a third party you did send the funds - or even to the merchant, if it is a honest mistake. Monero is private, so you can't just point to your transaction in the blockchain, as you can't tell who sent it, and who received it. However, by supplying the per-transaction private key to a party, that party can tell whether that transaction sent monero to that particular address. Note that storing these per-transaction keys is disabled by default, and you will have to enable it before sending, if you think you may need it:
set store-tx-info 1
You can retrieve the tx key from an earlier transaction:
get_tx_key 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012
Pass in the transaction ID you want the key for. Remember that a payment might have been split in more than one transaction, so you may need several keys. You can then send that key, or these keys, to whoever you want to provide proof of your transaction, along with the transaction id and the address you sent to. Note that this third party, if knowing your own address, will be able to see how much change was returned to you as well.
If you are the third party (that is, someone wants to prove to you that they sent monero to an address), then you can check this way:
check_tx_key TXID TXKEY ADDRESS
Replace `TXID`, `TXKEY` and `ADDRESS` with the transaction ID, per-transaction key, and destination address which were supplied to you, respectively. `monero-wallet-cli` will check that transaction and let you know how much monero this transaction paid to the given address.